With many countries depending on fossil fuels for energy generation, in particular in the developing world, carbon capture and storage (CCS) could support the worldwide efforts to ensure energy security and to tackle climate change and reduce greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. CCS is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site and depositing it so that it will not enter the atmosphere. Leveraging finance from the private sector is attractive for the further deployment of CCS projects but so far high costs and risk associated with CCS projects tend to restrict this option.
Below are examples of policies, laws and regulations on carbon capture and storage, as well as case studies on a number of jurisdictions carried out by the Global CCS Institute, and further online resources and databases.
Policies, Laws and Regulations: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
Reference: Carbon Capture & Storage Database - The International Energy Agency (IEA) International CCS Law and Regulation Database (CCS Database) catalogues how global CCS legal instruments address key regulatory issues associated with CO2 storage. The aim is to support ongoing efforts by governments to implement CCS permitting frameworks – legal or regulatory provisions that enable CCS, aim to ensure safe and effective capture, transportation and storage of CO2, and manage interaction with other uses of the subsurface – by consolidating and making more accessible information on existing instruments.
Reference: Carbon Capture and Storage: Legal and Regulatory Review, International Energy Agency 2015 - The CCS Legal and Regulatory Review gathers contributions by national, regional, state and provincial governments, at all stages of CCS regulatory development. The Review provides an overview of CCS advances since the last edition and those expected to occur in the following 6 to 12 months and an overview of CCS legal and regulatory developments to date is also provided.
Reference: Global CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) Institute
- Legal and regulatory developments related to carbon capture and storage dated between November 2010 and June 2011 (in English)
- Legal Resources from all over the world citing key pieces of legislation, including summaries of the relevant provisions and their applicability to CCS projects on or offshore (in English)
Further Reading and Resources
Reference: Global CCS Institute - The Global CCS Institute is an international member-led organization whose mission is to accelerate the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) as an imperative technology in tackling climate change and providing energy security.
Reference: International Energy Agency (Topics Page) -The IEA works to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its 29 member countries and beyond. Its mission is guided by four main areas of focus: energy security, economic development, environmental awareness and engagement worldwide.
Reference: Carbon Capture and Storage in Developing Countries: A Perspective on Barriers to Deployment, Natalia Kulichenko and Eleanor Ereira World Bank, June 2012 - This report aims to assist developing countries to better understand issues related to CCS within the economic and legal context of developing countries and countries in transition. It is the first effort of the World Bank Group to contribute to a deeper understanding of (a) the integration of power generation with CCS technologies, as well as their costs; (b) regulatory barriers to the deployment of CCS; and (c) global financing requirements for CCS and applicable project finance structures involving instruments of multilateral development institutions.